Free COMPILERS and CROSS-COMPILERS for LINUX and WINDOWS.

Dieses Thema im Forum "Sandkasten" wurde erstellt von SueBradely12345, 30.08.2008.

  1. #1 SueBradely12345, 30.08.2008
    SueBradely12345

    SueBradely12345 GESPERRT!

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    Free Compilers and Cross-Compilers
    for Linux and Windows.


    http://linuxhelp.150m.com/compile/gcc-compilers.htm (GCC 4.2.3)
    http://linux.50webs.org/compile/gcc-4.3.0-compilers.htm (GCC 4.3.0)

    Yesterday's release of gcc, version 4.3.0, was a shock. The compilation of the Fortran compiler failed. The compilation of the Win32 (mingw32) cross compiler failed. This was incredibly shoddy for a major release. I imagined people having significant problems figuring what was going on, so, I wrote this article to try and help out. Of course, in this article, I will not use version 4.3.0, but its immediate predecessor, version 4.2.3.

    Well, it turns out that both of these problems go away, if you do the build in directories separate from the sources. Since this is non-traditional, it might have been nice for people to point out that the build will not work, in certain cases, unless you build in separate directories. For projects like gcc, compiling in separate directories is actually a great idea.

    Although the original problems with 4.3.0 have been solved, I ran into more difficulties later in the program, so, at least for the time being, I have stuck with version 4.2.3. Below, I have repeated the original program using separate build directories. If you do this, all the compilers and cross-compilers, are able to compile, at least, C, C++, Fortran and Java code. I made no attempt to incorporate ADA into the mix.

    This is an outline of what we will do:

    (1) compile a C,C++,Java,Fortran,ObjC,ObjC++,treelang compiler for Linux
    (2) compile a C cross-compiler for Linux (needed to compile system libraries)
    (3) compile a C,C++,Java,Fortran,ObjC,ObjC++ cross-compiler for Linux
    (4) compile a C,C++,Java,Fortran,ObjC,ObjC++ compiler for Windows
    (5) compile a C,C++,Java,Fortran cross-compiler for Windows

    Compiler (1) runs on a Linux box and produces binaries that will run under Linux
    Compiler (3) runs on a Linux box and produces binaries that will run under Windows
    Compiler (4) runs on a Windows box and produces binaries that will run under Windows
    Compiler (5) runs on a Windows box and produces binaries that will run under Linux

    I have recently added some extra sections:

    (6) How to use the Cross-Compiler(s) you built in step 3.
    (7) Adding the language ADA to the mix.
    (8) Using the Compiler(s) you built in step 1.
    (9) General Remarks.

    Make sure that you have the following programs and packages installed.

    For SuSE 10.0: gcc libgcc glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel gcc-c++ libstdc++ libstdc++-devel.

    For Debian: emacs21 bzip2 gcc libncurses5-dev libc6-dev libc6-dev-i386 lib32gcc1 g++ libstdc++6-4.1-dev (and gnat if you want ADA).

    You may also need to install autoconf and automake.

    You will need at least 5 Gigabytes of free space. The compilation of part (1) took nearly 4 hours. The rest took just under 2 hours.

    Download the following to the directory /gcc/:

    binutils-2.18.50.tar.bz2 (16M)
    gcc-4.2.3.tar.bz2 (43M) from www.gnu.org/

    You can also obtain gcc-4.2.3.tar.bz2 in smaller pieces. Note, that in order to compile the ADA compiler, you need a working ADA compiler (GNAT 3.14, or later) on your system. You will probably want the Eclipse Java compiler, so that gcj will be able to parse .java source files:

    ecj-latest.jar from sourceware.org

    You need the following Win32 API and runtime files:

    w32api-3.11-src.tar.gz
    mingw-runtime-3.14-src.tar.gz from www.mingw.org

    By the way, mingw.org exists to mislead and hinder, rather than help.

    It is best to upgrade your version of gmp and mpfr:

    mpfr-2.3.1.tar.bz2 from www.mpfr.org
    gmp-4.2.2.tar.bz2 from gmplib.org

    It is assumed that you are the root user.

    (1) Compile a C,C++,Java,Fortran,ObjC,ObjC++,treelang compiler for Linux.

    We do this to have an up-to-date compiler (actually, a collection of compilers) with which to compile the cross-compilers of steps 2 and 3. Beginning with an older compiler can lead to some complications. I did the build on a SuSE 10.0 Linux box. Using the installed compiler (version 4.0.2) worked for all steps except parts of (4) and all of (5). Using version 4.2.3 means that most things work.

    Save all the packages to the directory /gcc/. Go there and unpack everything:

    Code:
    mkdir /gcc; cd /gcc 
    for a in *.tar.*; do tar xf $a; done 
    (unpacks everything)

    Code:
    mkdir binutils-linux-linux binutils-linux-win32 binutils-win32-win32 binutils-win32-linux 
    Code:
    mv ecj-latest.jar /gcc/gcc-4.2.3/ecj.jar 
    (needed to parse .java source files)

    Code:
    cd /gcc/binutils-linux-linux 
    /gcc/binutils-2.18.50/configure 
    make 
    make install 
    Code:
    cd /gcc; mkdir gmp-linux gmp-win32 
    Code:
    cd /gcc/gmp-linux 
    /gcc/gmp-4.2.2/configure 
    make 
    make install 
    The make install script runs the command ldconfig -n /usr/local/lib. It turns out that this is not sufficient, you need to run ldconfig (as root). This updates the ld.so.cache file so that it knows to use the newly installed gmp library, rather than some older, pre-existing, gmp library. In particular, you want the compilation of the mpfr library to use the correct version of gmp.

    Code:
    ldconfig 
    Code:
    cd /gcc; mkdir mpfr-linux mpfr-win32 
    Code:
    cd /gcc/mpfr-linux 
    /gcc/mpfr-2.3.1/configure 
    make 
    make install 
    Similarly, if you have some pre-existing version of the mpfr library, then you need to run ldconfig again. You should probably run ldconfig again, in any case, just to be on the safe side.

    Code:
    ldconfig 
    Code:
    cd /gcc; mkdir gcc-linux-linux gcc-linux-win32 gcc-win32-win32 gcc-win32-linux 
    Code:
    cd /gcc/gcc-linux-linux 
    /gcc/gcc-4.2.3/configure --enable-languages=c,c++,fortran,java,objc,obj-c++,treelang 
    make 
    make install 
    So that version 4.2.3 does not interfere with your older installed compiler, it will be installed in /usr/local/. To use it, instead of the installed compiler, you need to have /usr/local/bin first on your path. You arrange this with:

    Code:
    export PATH=/usr/local/bin:$PATH; echo $PATH 
    (2) Compile a C cross-compiler for Linux.

    This C cross-compiler will run on your Linux system and create binaries, from Linux C code, that will run on a Windows system. We need to use this cross-compiler to compile the Win32 API and runtime libraries.

    Code:
    cd /gcc/binutils-linux-win32 
    /gcc/binutils-2.18.50/configure --target=i686-pc-mingw32 
    make 
    make install 
    Code:
    cp -r /gcc/{mingw-runtime-3.14,w32api-3.11}/include /usr/local/i686-pc-mingw32 
    ln -s w32api-3.11 w32api 
    Code:
    cd /gcc/gcc-linux-win32/ 
    /gcc/gcc-4.2.3/configure --target=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --with-headers=/usr/local/i686-pc-mingw32/include \ 
                --enable-languages=c 
    make 
    make install 
    Code:
    cd /gcc/w32api-3.11 
    ./configure --build=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --host=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --prefix=/usr/local/i686-pc-mingw32 
    make 
    make install 
    Code:
    cd /gcc/mingw-runtime-3.14 
    ./configure --build=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --host=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --prefix=/usr/local/i686-pc-mingw32 
    make 
    make install 
    The files in /usr/local/i686-pc-mingw32, will be used for cross-compiling Linux programs to run on Windows.

    (3) Compile a C,C++,Java,Fortran,ObjC,ObjC++ cross-compiler for Linux.

    The C cross-compiler is compiled again, along with the other languages. This cross-compiler is run on your Linux box and compiles binaries, from Linux code, that will run on a Windows system. That is, it compiles Linux source code, so that the resulting binaries will run, unaltered, on Windows.

    Code:
    rm -fr /gcc/gcc-linux-win32 
    mkdir /gcc/gcc-linux-win32 
    cd /gcc/gcc-linux-win32 
    Code:
    /gcc/gcc-4.2.3/configure --target=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --with-headers=/usr/local/i686-pc-mingw32/include \ 
                --enable-languages=c,c++,fortran,java,objc,obj-c++ 
    make 
    make install 
    Know you need to run ldconfig to tell all the other programs where to find the necessary libraries:

    Code:
    ldconfig 
    (4) Compile a C,C++,Java,Fortran,ObjC,ObjC++ compiler for Windows.

    This compiler is a native Windows compiler. That is, it runs on a Windows box. It compiles Windows source code and the resulting binaries will run on Windows. When compiling C++, this compiler will do the same job as Visual C++ or C++ Builder.

    Code:
    export CC="i686-pc-mingw32-gcc"; echo $CC 
    Code:
    mkdir /mingw 
    cp -r /usr/local/i686-pc-mingw32/{include,lib} /mingw 
    The configure script expects to find the system headers and libraries in /mingw, so we have arranged for them to be there.

    Code:
    cd /gcc/binutils-win32-win32 
    /gcc/binutils-2.18.50/configure --build=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --host=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --target=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --prefix=/mingw 
    make 
    make install 
    Code:
    cd /gcc/gmp-win32 
    /gcc/gmp-4.2.2/configure --build=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --host=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --prefix=/mingw 
    make 
    make install 
    Code:
    cd /gcc/mpfr-win32 
    /gcc/mpfr-2.3.1/configure --build=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --host=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --prefix=/mingw 
    make 
    make install 
    Code:
    cd /gcc/gcc-win32-win32 
    /gcc/gcc-4.2.3/configure --build=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --target=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --host=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --enable-languages=c,c++,fortran,java,objc,obj-c++ \ 
                --prefix=/mingw 
    make 
    make install 
    If you look inside the libtool libraries, i.e., the .la files, you will see they have their destination directory hard-coded into them, so they must be transfered to C:\mingw on your Windows box.

    (5) Compile a C,C++,Java,Fortran cross-compiler for Windows.

    This compiler runs on a Windows box. It compiles Windows source code and the resulting binaries will run unaltered on Linux. Ever wanted to compile VirtualDub so that it runs on Linux? This avoids having to port the source code.

    Code:
    cd /gcc/binutils-win32-linux 
    /gcc/binutils-2.18.50/configure --build=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --host=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --target=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --prefix=/mingw 
    make 
    make install 
    Code:
    cd /gcc/gcc-win32-linux 
    /gcc/gcc-4.2.3/configure --build=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --host=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --target=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --enable-languages=c,c++,fortran,java \ 
                --disable-libgomp \ 
                --prefix=/mingw 
    make 
    make install 
    Now you copy everything in /mingw to C:\mingw on a Windows box and start compiling there. After you have compiled your Windows program, say VirtualDub, on your Windows computer, you transfer the resulting executable back to Linux and run it there. Of course, for most compilations you will also need to compile a version of the make program for Windows. You can compile the make program for Windows, on your Linux box, by using the cross-compiler you built in step (3).

    (6) How to use the cross-compiler you built in step 3.

    As a quick example of how to use the cross-compiler you built in step 3. Download the Linux make program to /gcc/:

    make-3.81.tar.bz2 from www.gnu.org/

    Code:
    export CC="i686-pc-mingw32-gcc"; echo $CC 
    cd /gcc; tar xf make-3.81.tar.bz2; cd /gcc/make-3.81 
    ./configure --build=i686-pc-linux-gnu \ 
                --host=i686-pc-mingw32 \ 
                --prefix=/mingw 
    make 
    make install 
    Now copy make.exe to C:\mingw\bin on your Windows box. Easy, isn't it?

    (7) Adding the language ADA to the mix.

    Download the following binary gnat package to /gcc/:

    gnat-3.15p-i686-pc-redhat71-gnu-bin.tar.bz2 (12M) from linuxfromscratch.org

    Code:
    tar xf gnat-3.15p-i686-pc-redhat71-gnu-bin.tar.bz2 
    cd /gcc/gnat-3.15p-i686-pc-linux-gnu-bin/ 
    Run the script doconfig entering /gcc/gnat for the installation directory. Then run doinstall.

    Code:
    ./doconfig; ./doinstall 
    Follow the instructions of section (1), until the compilation of the compiler itself.

    Then set your PATH variable so that you use the ADA-understanding compiler that you have just installed.

    Code:
    export PATH=/gcc/gnat/bin:$PATH; echo $PATH 
    Now compile the compiler of section (1), with one small change. Namely, add ada to the --enable-languages option.

    Code:
    cd /gcc/gcc-linux-linux 
    /gcc/gcc-4.2.3/configure \ 
                --enable-languages=c,ada,c++,fortran,java,objc,obj-c++,treelang 
    make 
    make install 
    Then reset you PATH variable and continue from section (2), as above, except adding ada to the --enable-languages option.

    Code:
    export PATH=/usr/local/bin:$PATH; echo $PATH 
    You could also try the compiler in gnat-gpl-2007-i686-gnu-linux-libc2.3-bin.tar.gz (75M) from libre.adacore.com. Unfortunately, gcc-4.2.3 does not compile at all and gcc-4.3.0 does not compile outside the sources.

    If at any time you need to know which compiler you are using, just enter the command:

    Code:
    gcc -v 
    Using built-in specs.
    Target: i686-pc-linux-gnu
    Configured with: /gcc/gcc-4.2.3/configure --enable-languages=c,ada,c++,fortran,java,objc,obj-c++,treelang
    Thread model: posix
    gcc version 4.2.3

    The compiler in the gnat package is gcc version 2.8.1. Ancient, but worked like a charm.

    (8) Using the Compiler you built in step 1.

    The first thing to note, is that the "obvious"
    Code:
    gcc program.f 
    and
    Code:
    gcc program.java 
    do not work.

    The Fortran front-end is gfortran. It is used as
    Code:
    gfortran program.f 
    Code:
    gcc -lgfortranbegin -lgfortran program.f 
    also works.

    The Java front-end is gcj. The following incantations can be used to compile Java code:

    Code:
    gcj --main=program program.java 
    (compile to C++ object file, a.out)
    Code:
    ./a.out 
    (execute the C++ object file, a.out)
    Code:
    gcj -C program.java 
    (compile to Java bytecode file, program.class)
    Code:
    gij program 
    (execute the bytecode, program.class, with the GCC Java Virtual Machine)

    To compile ObjC code, use
    Code:
    gcc -lobjc program.m 
    If you mix ObjC code and C++ code in the same files, you call the resulting mixture, ObjC++ code. It is apparently compiled in the same way as ObjC code. You are totally on your own for treelang.

    To compile ADA code, use
    Code:
    gnat make program.adb 
    A common cause of frustration, is that gcc refuses to compile C-programs which use the mathematics functions, cos, sin, pow, etc. Unfortunately, the error messages do not point to the source of the problem, which is that you have not instructed gcc to link in the mathematics library, libm. You do this by adding -lm to the command, for example:

    Code:
    gcc -lm program-using-mathematics-functions.c 
    (9) General Remarks.

    Since it is difficult to cut and paste many of the above commands, here is the script I used for the project.

    If you are building on an older PC, replace i686 by i386, everywhere in the above.

    For AMD-64, the script config.guess, gives x86_64-unknown-linux-gnu. It seems you can put any word in place of unknown, or no word at all. So configure with something like:

    Code:
    ./configure --build=x86_64-linux-gnu \ 
                --host=x86_64-linux-gnu \ 
                --target=i686-pc-mingw32 
    I actually used x86_64-pc-linux-gnu and am assuming that x86_64-linux-gnu will work.

    If you have a multilib system, like Debian, you may want to compile both 32-bit and 64-bit libraries for gcc. You need to have all the standard 32-bit libraries installed. On Debian, make sure you have the links:

    Code:
    ln -s /lib /lib64 
    ln -s /emul/ia32-linux/lib /lib32 
    ln -s /usr/lib /usr/lib64 
    ln -s /emul/ia32-linux/usr/lib /usr/lib32 
    The compilation will fail, for gcc-4.2.3, unless you use the --disable-multilib configuration option, or you create the (secret) link:

    Code:
    ln -s /emul/ia32-linux/lib /usr/local/x86_64-pc-linux-gnu/lib/32 
    For gcc-4.3.0 the above link appears to be unnecessary (4.3.0 has other problems).

    I have been running short on space and over time have deleted all my Windows partitions. As soon as I get around to reinstalling Windows, I will let you know how the Windows compilers work. I have now done this. There are weird problems with the Fortran compiler and the Java Virtual Machine, gij, is mysteriously missing. C C++ ObjC and ObjC++ seem OK, at least for simple programs. The compilers were run from an XP cmd window. I only looked at the native Windows compilers. I will look at the cross compilers at some later date.

    By the way, if you wish to both watch, and record, the output of the compilation, you can do this:

    Code:
    ./configure 2>&1 | tee log.configure 
    make 2>&1 | tee log.make 
    make install 2>&1 | tee log.install 
     
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  3. #2 Goodspeed, 30.08.2008
    Goodspeed

    Goodspeed Foren Gott
    Moderator

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    Äh ... hä?
     
  4. #3 JBR, 30.08.2008
    Zuletzt bearbeitet: 30.08.2008
    JBR

    JBR Fichtenschonung

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    War gestern der 5. März ?
    http://gcc.gnu.org/gcc-4.3/

    Nachtrag

     
  5. #4 Ferdinant, 30.08.2008
    Ferdinant

    Ferdinant Doppel-As

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    und welchen tieferen Sinn hat dieses Posting?
     
  6. #5 Bâshgob, 30.08.2008
    Bâshgob

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  7. Gast1

    Gast1 Guest

    @Bâshgob

    Du musst das im Kontext sehen, der/die TE gehört wohl zur G3nt00-Fraktion, da gehören ständiges Copy&Paste und das dann für was Besonderes halten zum guten Ton.

    :-)
     
  8. #7 Bâshgob, 30.08.2008
    Bâshgob

    Bâshgob freies Radikal

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    Disclaimer:

    Gentoouser und Sympathiesanten verpflichten sich nach dem Studiums dieses Disclaimers den folgenden Post entweder nicht zu lesen oder, so er dennoch gelesen wurde der Enthaltung jeglicher Beschwer.

    Beschlossen und verkündet.

    @ R_M:

    Und obendrein sind Gehtot-User auch noch Umweltschweine, weil die jeden Dreck erstmal kompilieren müssen. SuSE und Debian sind da viel Umweltfreundlicher weil praktisch alles als Binärpaket angeboten wird.
     
  9. Gast1

    Gast1 Guest

    Röschtösch!

    Meine Vermutung ist, daß wir z.B. dem Atomausstieg schlagartig sehr viel näher kämen, wenn man den Jungs/Mädels mal den "Compiler" abdrehen würde ..... :devil:

    (Ob wir den Thread so in den Sandkasten bekommen?)
     
  10. #9 Wolfgang, 30.08.2008
    Wolfgang

    Wolfgang Foren Gott

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    Cross-Compiler brauchen Cross-Postings.

    Ihr vergesst den sozialen Aspekt.
    Immerhin sind sie weg von der Straße. Was sollen die sonst mit der gewonnenen Zeit machen, wenn das abgedreht wird?

    Nur eine Frage der Zeit...
     
  11. #10 saeckereier, 30.08.2008
    saeckereier

    saeckereier Graue Eminenz

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    Klappe ihr da oben! ;-)

    [size=-2]Und wehe mir kommt da jetzt einer auf die Idee mich zu modden nachdem ein Mitglied der Spezies moderatorius vulgaris sich auch nicht zurückhalten konnte.[/size]
     
  12. #11 Bâshgob, 30.08.2008
    Bâshgob

    Bâshgob freies Radikal

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    Oh, schön. Hast meinen Disclaimer nicht gelesen?
     
  13. #12 saeckereier, 30.08.2008
    saeckereier

    saeckereier Graue Eminenz

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    Ich hab den so behandelt wie e-Mail Disclaimer. Zeig mir das Gerichtsurteil, dass den rechtlich bindend macht :-)

    EDIT: Außerdem: Wider die Anglizismen!
     
  14. .mike.

    .mike. Doppel-As

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    wär intressant zu wissen, ob R_M und Bashgob schon mal gentoo (für längere zeit) benutzt haben...
     
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  16. #14 saeckereier, 30.08.2008
    saeckereier

    saeckereier Graue Eminenz

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    Darum geht's doch gar nicht. Das hier ist alles andere als ne sachliche Distributions-Debatte (davon haben wir hier auch schon ein paar gehabt und da sind die ganz zahm :-) ) Das geht hier mehr darum, den Thread Sandkastenreif zu machen. Man kann eh davon ausgehen, dass alle unter http://distrowatch.com/dwres.php?resource=major gelisteten Linux rel. gleich cool sind. Der Rest ist dann Geschmackssache. Gut ich geb zu, mir geht mein Debian aufm Rootserver aufn Sack, aber das x-mal kompilieren wichtiger Updates auch... Zugegeben mitm Bin-Server erledigt sich das und vllt. probier ich das in der nächsten Inkarnation
     
  17. #15 Gast1, 30.08.2008
    Zuletzt von einem Moderator bearbeitet: 30.08.2008
    Gast1

    Gast1 Guest

    Längere Zeit passt ....

    Nachdem der ganze Kram nach Ablauf der entsprechenden Kompilierzeit endlich halbwegs lief, war es in den Anwendungen (welch Überraschung) ein Linux wie jedes andere auch.

    Dann flog es wieder runter, weil ich den besonderen Sinn dahinter nicht gesehen habe.

    Die Zeit, die man in die Optmierung reinsteckt, holt man nie und nimmer bei den paar Sekunden schnellere Bootzeit (wenn überhaupt) bzw. den paar Millisekunden schnellere Startzeit von $ANWENDUNG (wenn überhaupt) im Laufe eines PC-Lebens wieder raus.

    Lerneffekt war gegen null (> 90% stupides Anleitungen abtippen), die Konfigurationsdateien/Initscripte/etc./pp. funktionieren prinzipiell bei anderen Distributionen auch und wenn irgendeine Datei unter Gentoo nun anders heisst als unter $DISTRIBUTION; dann ist der Lerneffekt nicht "wie funktioniert Linux" sondern "wie funktioniert Gentoo".

    Mag ja ne gute Distribution sein, aber dieses ganze Gewäsch, es wäre "etwas ganz besonderes" und man würde "Lernen wie Linux" funktioniert" ist Augenwischerei.

    Genau das behaupten aber immer wieder irgendwelche "G3nt00-1337-H4xx0rz" und halten sich dabei (wahrscheinlich im Gegensatz zu denen, die wirklich $AHNUNG haben und Gentoo benutzen) für was Besonderes.

    Ergo, ein bisschen Spaß^WBashing muss sein ...

    Greetz,

    RM

    //edit:

    PSSSSSSSST!

    Musst Du immer alles verraten?

    :-)
     
Thema:

Free COMPILERS and CROSS-COMPILERS for LINUX and WINDOWS.

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